Nutrients In Eggs

Eggs are a nutrient goldmine!

One large egg has varying amounts of 13 essential vitamins and minerals, high-quality protein, all for 70 calories.

While egg whites contain some of the eggs’ high-quality protein, riboflavin and selenium, the majority of an egg’s nutrient package is found in the yolk. Nutrients such as:

  • Vitamin D, critical for bone health and immune function. Eggs are one of the only foods that naturally contain vitamin D.
  • Choline, essential for normal functioning of all cells, but particularly important during pregnancy to support healthy brain development of the fetus.
  • Lutein and zeaxanthin, antioxidants that are believed to reduce the risk of developing cataracts and slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration, a disease that develops with age.

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Focus on Thiamine

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The benefits of thiamine (or thiamin), a water soluble vitamin also known as Vitamin B1, are often overlooked despite the nutrient’s importance in bodily function. Thiamin is one of the essential nutrients the body must have to convert carbohydrates  into energy, making it beneficial when the body is trying to combat stress. It also plays a crucial role in conducting nerve impulses and muscle contraction, and is therefore essential to keep the heart, muscles, and nervous system functioning as a whole.1 Last but not least, it’s important to note that thiamine aids in the flow of electrolytes in and out of nerve and muscle cells; multiple enzyme processes; and the production of hydrochloric acid which is necessary for proper digestion. 2

The U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for adults aged 19 years and older is 1.2 milligrams daily for males and 1.1 milligrams daily for females. The RDA for pregnant or breastfeeding women of any age is 1.4 milligrams daily.1 The importance of thiamine becomes most apparent when examining consequences of deficiency. Thiamine is not stored in the body and therefore can become depleted quickly– typically within 14 days. Beriberi, a severe chronic thiamine deficiency, can result in potentially serious complications, including poor or diminished growth in muscle and nerve tissues.

Fortunately, thiamine is widely available in a variety of foods and deficiencies are therefore typically rare in developed countries. Good sources of thiamine include whole grains, enriched wheat, brown rice, seafood, lean pork, liver, and nuts. Most fruits and vegetables also contain thiamine. When talking to patients, it is important to note that thiamine is often lost in foods after cooking or processing. Remind clients of the proper methods for preparing vegetables so they do not lose vital nutrients due to overcooking. When cooking vegetables, it is best to only add a small amount of water and keep the lid on the pan to preserve vitamins and other nutrients.

A small amount of thiamine is available in eggs, so pair them with other good sources such as milk, oats, and whole grains to contribute to adequate intake levels.  For a healthy dose of thiamine try the below creative twist on a summer favorite.

Scrambled Eggs, Tomato, Mozzarella, & Basil Sandwich

Ingredients

  • 2 eggs
  • 2 Tbsp. milk OR water
  • Salt and pepper
  • 3 tsp. butter OR olive oil, divided
  • 4 slices whole wheat bread
  • 2 slices mozzarella cheese
  • 4 slices tomato
  • 6 fresh basil leaves or ¼ tsp. dried basil leaves

Directions

  • Beat eggs, milk, salt, and pepper in bowl until blended
  • HEAT 1 tsp. butter in large nonstick skillet over medium heat until hot. POUR IN egg mixture. As eggs begin to set, GENTLY PULL the eggs across the pan with an inverted turner, forming large soft curds. Continue cooking-pulling, lifting and folding eggs – until thickened and no visible liquid egg remains. Do not stir constantly. REMOVE from pan. Clean Skillet
  • SPREAD remaining 2 tsp. butter evenly on one side of each bread slice (or brush lightly with oil). PLACE 2 slices in skillet, buttered side down. TOP evenly with scrambled eggs, cheese, tomato and basil. COVER with remaining bread, buttered side up.
  • GRILL sandwiches over medium heat, turning once, until bread is toasted and cheese is melted, 2 to 4 minutes

Per Serving

Excellent Source: Protein, Calcium and Choline

Good Source: Dietary Fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Folate and Iron

Calories: 359; Total Fat: 18g; Saturated fat: 9g; Polyunsaturated fat: 2g; Monounsaturated fat: 6g; Cholesterol: 218mg; Sodium: 492mg; Carbohydrates: 26g; Dietary Fiber: 4g; Protein: 22g; Vitamin A: 951.7IU; Vitamin D: 47.6IU; Folate: 60.8mcg; Calcium: 317.8mg; Iron: 2.4mg; Choline: 150.4mg

References:

1)        Mayo Clinic. (2012, September 1). Thiamine (vitamin b1). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/vitamin-b1/NS_patient-thiamin (accessed June 10, 2013)

2)         Nestle, M. (2001). Beriberi, white rice, and vitamin b: A disease, a cause, and a cure (review.Bulletin of the History of Medicine , 75(2), Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/bulletin_of_the_history_of_medicine/v075/75.2nestle.html (accessed June 8, 2013)

3)        Web MD. (2009). Thiamine (vitamin b1) . Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-965-THIAMINE (VITAMIN B1).aspx?activeIngredientId=965&activeIngredientName=THIAMINE (VITAMIN B1)(accessed June 11,2013)

Zinc: Serve Yourself an Immune Boosting Breakfast

When asked to list nutrients that are crucial for promoting overall health and well-being, many clients will have protein, antioxidants, and vitamins at the top of their minds.  While these nutrients are undoubtedly significant, it’s important to also recognize the lesser-known minerals that play vital role in promoting overall health. Take zinc for example – it’s naturally found in some foods and many other foods are fortified to include greater levels of the mineral.  Zinc is most commonly known for shorting the duration and severity of the common cold, but many clients don’t understand what the mineral’s significance beyond that.

Zinc plays a viable role in cellular metabolism and is required for the functioning of over 300 enzymes in the body1. It contributes to maintaining immune function by regulating T lymphocytes and possessing antiviral activity; and it’s involved in and necessary for protein synthesis, wound healing, DNA synthesis, and cell division. Zinc has also shown to support normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence2. According to a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), most infants, children, and adults in the United States have no problem consuming the recommended amounts of zinc in their regular diet. This is not the case with older adults, however, as the study found that 35 percent to 45 percent of adults 60 years and older have zinc intakes below the recommended dietary allowances3.

The current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for female adults is 8mg (6.8mg/day for elderly females) and 11mg for adult males (9.4mg/day for elderly males) and 11mg for pregnant women. It is important to consume adequate amounts of zinc daily as the body does not have a specialized storage system1. Zinc is found in most animal sources where red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc to the American diet. Other quality sources include beans, nuts, certain types of seafood (oysters, crab, and lobster especially), whole grains, fortified cereals, dairy products, and of course, eggs.

When looking to increase zinc levels in your diet, it’s important to pay close attention to which foods you turn to. Although many grain and plant-based foods are good sources of zinc, it is important to note that these foods also contain phytates which bind to zinc and inhibit its absorption. Therefore best bioavailability of zinc comes from animal sources mentioned such as meat, fish, dairy, and eggs! One egg provides 4 percent of the recommended daily value (DV)3. The omelet recipe below will provide zinc from the eggs, ham and spinach.

Spinach, Ham, and Cheese Omelet
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2 servings- pair with some fruit and a cup of low-fat milk for a complete meal.

Ingredients:

  • 2 EGGS
  • 2 Tbsp. water
  • 1 tsp. butter
  • ¼ cup shredded Italian cheese blend (1 oz.)
  • ¼ cup baby spinach
  • ¼ cup finely chopped ham
  • Salt and pepper to taste

Directions:

  • Beat eggs and water in small bowl until blended.
  • Heat butter in 7 to 10-inch nonstick omelet pan of skillet over medium-high heat until hot. Tilt pan to coat bottom. Pour in egg mixture should set immediately at edges.
  • Gently push cooked portions from edges toward the center with inverted turner so that uncooked eggs can reach the hot pan surface. CONTINUE cooking, tilting pan and gently moving cooked portions as needed.
  • When top surface of eggs is thickened and no visible liquid egg remains, season with salt and pepper. Place cheese on one side of omelet; top with spinach and ham. Fold omelet in half with turner. With a quick flip of the wrist, turn pan and invert or slide omelet onto plate. Service immediately.

Per serving Calories: 299 Total Fat: 20g; Saturated fat: 9g; Polyunsaturated fat: 2g;  Monounsaturated fat: 5g; Cholesterol: 418mg; Sodium: 642mg; Carbohydrates: 2g; Dietary Fiber: 0g; Protein: 25g; Vitamin A: 1262.3IU; Vitamin D: 91.9IU; Folate: 47.4mcg; Calcium: 264.9mg; Iron: 2.2mg; Choline: 274.2mg; Zinc: 4.415

References:

1)      Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Zinc, 2012. Web. 23 May 2013. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/zinc/NS_patient-zinc.

2)      Chaffee B, King J. Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Pediatric & Perinatal Epidemiology [serial online]. July 2, 2012; 26:118-137. Available from: Consumer Health Complete – EBSCOhost, Ipswich, MA. Accessed May 23, 2013.

3)      Gibson, RS, and JE McKenzie. The Risk of Inadequate Zinc Intake in the United States and New Zealand Adults. 38th ed. Vol. 2: Nutrition Today, 2003. 63-70. Web. 23 May 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12698057.

4)      Brown, KH, KR Wessells, and SY Hess. Zinc bioavailability from zinc-fortified foods. 3rd ed. Vol. 77: International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 2007. 174-81. Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA. Web. 23 May 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18214018.

5)      U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2012. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page,http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

Unscrambling the Science Behind Eggs and Omega-3 Fatty Acids

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James D. House, B.Sc.(Agr), Ph.D.
Professor and Head
Department of Human Nutritional Sciences
University of Manitoba

Today’s post comes from James House, Ph.D. Dr. House is studying the relationship between water soluble vitamin nutrition, the metabolism of amino acids, and how they relate to optimal growth and health of individuals. He also maintains a strong focus towards the development of functional foods of animal origin.  He is also a member of ENC’s Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP).

The omega 3 fatty acids include the plant-based alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; high levels in flax and chia, moderate levels in hemp and canola), and the animal-based, longer chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA),  docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).  The consumption of omega-3 fatty acids has been linked to cardioprotective effects, including reduced serum triglycerides, reduced blood pressure, and anti-inflammatory and anti-arrhythmic effects.   Several reviews have been published in the last few years to highlight the linkage between omega-3 consumption and potential health benefits. From a nutritional standpoint, the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) process led to the establishment of an adequate intake (AI) for the omega-3 fatty acid ALA, in the amount of 1.1 g/d for women, and 1.6 g/d for men.  The same recommendations indicated that as much as 10% of the ALA can be provided by the sum of EPA, DPA and DHA, since these are synthesized from ALA, equivalent to 110- 160 mg/d.  These recommendations were based on the usual intake patterns of consumers in the US. However, evidence supports the consideration of higher intakes of the longer chain omega-3 fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA, for cardiovascular health, in addition to suggested benefits in reducing risk for certain cancers and inflammatory conditions.  Both EPA and DHA are found in significant amounts in fish and other marine foods, and the consumption of two servings of fish per week could lead to the intake of 250 mg/d of EPA/DHA that is being recommended in some circles.  While marine sources represent the highest natural sources of the long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, eggs also provide the spectrum of omega-3 fatty acids.

  • A serving of two, classic table eggs (100 g) provides 65 mg or roughly 50% of the daily suggested amount of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids, based on the DRIs

In addition, by adding flaxseed, fish oil, or algal oils to the hen’s diet, we can significantly enhance both the total and the long chain omega-3 content of the egg.  Current research is focused on enhancing the content of not only the omega-3’s , but other important nutrients for the population, including:

  • Vitamin D
  • Folate
  • Vitamin B12

Stay tuned for future blogs that describe successes with enhancing eggs with these important nutrients.

Nutrition Spotlight: The Phosphorus Factor in End-Stage Renal Disease

Osteodystrophy occurs when elevated blood phosphorus levels cause parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels to rise which, in turn, increases calcium release from the bones to maintain the appropriate calcium to phosphorus ratio in the blood.2 The kidneys are also responsible for activating vitamin D to increase calcium absorption in the GI tract but this process is also impaired in those with ESRD4. Elevated blood levels of calcium and phosphorus can lead to increased calcification, or stiffening, of soft tissues including blood vessels, the lungs, eyes and the heart muscle.2 Over time this can lead to the demineralization or weakening of the bones as well as an increased risk for cardiovascular complications.3, 4

Dialysis helps remove some of the phosphorus from the blood, but not enough to maintain normal blood levels. Patients on dialysis need to focus on consuming lower phosphorus foods to decrease their phosphorus intake and consequently phosphorus levels in the blood1. Examples of high phosphorus foods include dairy, nuts, dark-sodas, beans and chocolate. Lower phosphorus foods include clear-sodas, non-bran cereals, fruits and vegetables. One large egg contains 99 mg of phosphorus and can be a good high-quality protein option and poached, fried or baked eggs are a quick and affordable breakfast option – particularly when paired with other low phosphorus foods. The recipe below is great for a quick morning breakfast.

Basic Poached Eggs

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Ingredients:

  • 1 Egg, cold
  • Salt and Pepper

Directions:

  1. HEAT 2 to 3 inches of water in large saucepan or deep skillet to boiling. ADJUST HEAT to keep liquid simmering gently.
  2. BREAK egg into custard cup or saucer. Holding dish close to surface, SLIP egg into water.
  3. COOK egg until whites are completely set and yolks begin to thicken but are not hard, 3 to 5 minutes. Do not stir. LIFT egg from water with slotted spoon. DRAIN in spoon or on paper towels. TRIM any rough edges, if desired. SPRINKLE with salt and pepper. SERVE immediately.

References:

  1. National Kidney Foundation. Phosphorus your CKD Diet.http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/phosphorus.cfm  Accessed April 16, 2013.
  2. Medline Plus. Phosphorus in your diet.http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002424.htm Accessed April 16, 2013.
  3. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/CKD_Mineral_Bone/Accessed April 17, 2013.
  4. Moe S, Drüeke T, Cunningham J, et al. Definition, evaluation, and classification of renal osteodystrophy: A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO).Kidney Int. 2006; 69(11):1945-1953.

White vs. Brown Eggs – What’s the Story?

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Egg selection in grocery stores has become increasingly complicated for consumers as the variety of eggs to choose from continues to expand with the addition of omega-3 enriched eggs, increased size variation and the development of organic brands. With myths of nutritional content differences floating around, many consumers aren’t sure if there’s a difference between white eggs and brown eggs.

In reality, the color of the egg shell is not related to the quality, flavor, nutritional content, shell thickness, or cooking properties1. Differences in shell color are due to differences in  hen breeds. Hens with red feathers and ear lobes lay eggs with brown shells, while hens with white feathers and ear lobes lay eggs with white shells – the only difference is the price1. Hens that lay brown eggs are larger and therefore require more feed than hens that lay white eggs. For that reason, eggs with brown shells are sold at a slightly higher price to cover the additional costs for feed.

Here is a recent blog/podcast about eggs that Neva Cochran, ENC Health Professional Advisor, completed with Dr. Susan Mitchell.

Some key highlights about eggs:

  • Nutritional value does not have any impact on the grade (AA, A or B). Learn more about grading here.
  • Egg sizes include: peewee, small, medium, large, extra-large and jumbo, but medium, large and extra-large are the most common sizes available in stores.
  • Basic egg recipes and scrambled or fried egg recipes can use any size egg. Some baked goods will recommend using a specific size to ensure the correct proportion of liquid to dry ingredients is maintained.
  • Decode terms like organic, cage-free and free-range
  • Having multiple egg choices allows consumers the ability to choose eggs based on their personal preferences.

For more information on egg selection, reference this article on the different types of specialty eggs that are available.

No matter what type of eggs you choose, don’t be afraid to experiment! Here is a recipe with a new twist on the classic recipe, Green Eggs and Ham that is fun for clients to experience and enjoy with their whole family!

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Green Eggs and Ham                

Ingredients:

2 to 4 eggs

2 to 4 tbsp. milk

Salt and pepper

1 or 2 tsp. butter

2 to 4 tbsp. tomatillo salsa, warmed

2 to 4 tbsp. chopped ham

Directions:

  1. Beat eggs, milk, salt and pepper in bowl until blended
  2. Heat butter in nonstick skillet over medium heat until hot. Pour in egg mixture. As eggs begin to set, gently pull the eggs across the pan with an inverted turner, forming large, soft curds.
  3. Continue cooking – pulling lifting and folding eggs – until thickened and no visible liquid egg remains. Do not stir constantly. Remove from heat.
  4. Top eggs with tomatillo salsa and ham. Serve immediately.

Nutrition Information (per serving):

Calories: 116, Total Fat: 7, Saturated fat: 3g, Polyunsaturated fat: 1g, Monounsaturated fat: 3g, Cholesterol: 199mg, Sodium: 163mg, Carbohydrates: 3g, Dietary Fiber: 0g, Protein: 10g, Vitamin A: 358.1IU, Vitamin D: 49.9IU, Folate: 24.3mcg, Calcium: 47.6mg, Iron: 1mg, Choline: 138.4mg

References:

  1. Incredible Edible Egg. Egg Facts & Fun. http://www.incredibleegg.org/egg-facts/eggcyclopedia/c/color Accessed April 16, 2013.
  2. Incredible Edible Egg. Egg Facts & Fun. http://www.incredibleegg.org/egg-facts/eggcyclopedia/b/buying  Accessed April 16, 2013.
  3. Illinois Department of Agriculture. Eggs: A Consumer Guide.http://www.agr.state.il.us/programs/consumer/egg/eggconsguide.html  Updated April 16th, 2013. Accessed April 16, 2013.