Weight Management & Satiety

Obesity is a multi-factorial and complex health issue. Current guidance for weight management encourages physical activity along with consuming an overall healthy eating pattern which includes whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, low-fat and fat-free dairy products. A growing body of research suggests that dietary protein, specifically, can help promote satiety, facilitating weight loss when consumed as part of reduced energy diets.

Several clinical trials have specifically assessed the effects of high-quality protein from eggs on satiety and weight loss. For example:

  • In a study in overweight adults, calorie-restricted diets that included either eggs or a bagel for breakfast were compared; the people who consumed eggs for breakfast lowered their body mass index by 61%, lost 65% more weight, and reported feeling more energetic than those who ate a bagel for breakfast. (*1)
  • Men who consumed an egg breakfast versus a bagel breakfast showed that appetite hormones were suppressed following eggs at breakfast, as was energy intake over the course of the day. (*2)
  • A study of overweight premenopausal women that evaluated satiety responses to eating a turkey sausage and egg breakfast sandwich versus a low-protein pancake breakfast showed better appetite control and few calories consumed at lunch following the egg-based breakfast. (*3)
  • In a 3-month trial among subjects with type 2 diabetes, those who consumed 2 eggs per day for 6 days a week reported less hunger and greater satiety than those who consumed less than 2 eggs per week. (*4)

1 Vander Wal JS et al. Egg breakfast enhances weight loss. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32:1545-51
2 Ratliff JJ et al. Consuming eggs for breakfast influences plasma glucose and ghrelin, while reducing energy intake during the next 24 hours in adult men. Nutr Res. 2010;30:96-103.
3 Rains TM et al. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial to assess the acute appetitive and metabolic effects of sausage and egg-based convenience breakfast meals in overweight premenopausal women. Nutr J. 2015;14:17.
4 Fuller NR et al. The effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) study – a 3-mo randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101:705-713.

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Whole foods high in protein, fiber and whole grains may enhance satiety when consumed as snacks

hard-boiled-egg-dippers

Featured article in the January 2017 issue of Nutrition Research Update

A recent paper published in Advances in Nutrition summarized evidence on associations between snacking and both satiety and body weight. Although snacking is a source of calories, it can also be satiating and promote appetite control at subsequent meals. Based on published literature on snacking food choices and behaviors, the paper reported that “whole foods high in protein, fiber and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks.” They also noted “the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of intervention and observation studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status.”

In conclusion, this review suggests that “judicious selection of snack foods has the potential to contribute valuable nutrients to the daily diet… [and] contribute to satiety, with higher-protein foods having the strongest effect.”

Reference Citation
Njike VY, Smith TM, Shuval O, Shuval K, Edshteyn I, Kalantari V, Yaroch AL. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight. Adv Nutr. 2016;7:866-78.




			

A higher protein breakfast increases the thermic effect of feeding and appetite in breakfast skippers

Sunny Side Up Eggs

Featured article in the August, 2016 Issue of Nutrition Research Update

Numerous studies have demonstrated that higher protein meals at breakfast lead to greater feelings of fullness relative to lower protein breakfast meals, which may reduce energy intake and therefore facilitate weight loss (click here for a recent review).  Less understood is the effect of protein consumption at breakfast on the thermic effect of feeding (TEF), a component of total energy expenditure.

Continue reading “A higher protein breakfast increases the thermic effect of feeding and appetite in breakfast skippers”

Unintended Consequences of Weight Loss: A Researcher Weighs In

X-ray of Human

Featured article in the August, 2016 Issue of Nutrition Research Update; written by Christian Wright, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Nutrition Science Laboratory of Nutrition, Fitness, and Aging Purdue University

It goes without saying that our nation currently faces a serious obesity crisis. Nearly half of the United States has an obesity prevalence greater than 30% and not a single state in the U.S. shows a prevalence less than 20% (Fig. 1). This pervasiveness of obesity has led to a dramatic spike in cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes cases, which has ultimately decreased the quality of life and life expectancy for many Americans (1). One solution to this nationwide problem is weight loss, particularly diet-induced weight loss (2). Even a 5% reduction in body weight is shown to improve fasting blood lipid and glucose concentrations while decreasing the risk of all-cause mortality (3, 4). Indeed, weight loss is beneficial and is needed to combat our on-going battle with obesity. However, the loss of body mass without considering changes in body composition is irresponsible. Though beneficial for metabolic health, weight loss is shown to decrease bone mass (5) which could, in turn, increase the risk of osteoporosis and skeletal fracture.

Continue reading “Unintended Consequences of Weight Loss: A Researcher Weighs In”

Does skipping breakfast lead to faster fat loss

Featured article in the Winter 2016 Issue of Nutrition Close-Up; written by Pamela Hernandez, CPT

The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) reports that 78% of its participants eat breakfast daily.1 With a sample size of over 10,000 individuals who have each lost 30 pounds or more, why is the behavior of eating breakfast still a question as it relates to fat loss and fitness? Even fitness professionals vigorously debate the topic, particularly when it comes to eating before a morning workout.  Continue reading “Does skipping breakfast lead to faster fat loss”